A study by Ray Smith (1992), of 23 ADD children using CES for 45 minutes per day for three weeks showed profound effects in reducing state anxiety (anxiety in the moment) and trait anxiety (overall anxiety) and depression (Figure 1). A follow-up after 18 months showed that the effects were still holding quite well. Ray also measured IQ and found significant improvements (Figure 2), which also held over 18 months.
Figure 1. Improvements in Stress Measures Following Treatment with CES
A 1999 controlled study (n=21) by Susan Southworth, on attention and concentration of normal students found that one session of CES for just 20 minutes improved attention by 31%, whereas the placebo group improved by only 4%.
There certainly is ample research demonstrating the effectiveness of CES for treating both mood and performance, which may be used as an adjunct to AVE stimulation.
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